In back-to-back wars fought between A.D. 101 and 106, the emperor Trajan mustered tens of thousands of Roman troops, crossed the Danube River on two of the longest bridges the ancient world had ever seen, defeated a mighty barbarian empire on its mountainous home turf twice, then systematically wiped it from the face of Europe. One contemporary chronicler boasted that the conquest yielded a half million pounds of gold and a million pounds of silver, not to mention a fertile new province. The column was deeply influential, the inspiration for later monuments in Rome and across the empire. The study and publication of Trajan’s Column has mirrored the development of European academic studies from the 15th century to the present. Bei Amtsantritt eines neuen Kaisers pflegten die Senatoren des 4. The story of Emperor Trajan’s victory over a mighty barbarian empire isn’t just one for the books. In extremis an object might by omitted, as was a citizen soldier’s sword which formed a bridge between hand and shield, and which still survives on the original carving (CXV.14). In the cast gallery of the Thorvaldsensmuseet in København (Denmark) there is a complete cast of Cichorius Scene LXXVIII (Victory and trophies), plus casts of one or more human heads (total 83), and some other details such as horses and military standards (pers. 1. The situation was transformed by the monumental work of Conrad Cichorius. A New Edition of the Cichorius Plates, Gloucester, Marin, L. 1988: ‘Leggibilità e visibilità della storia’, in Francesi 1988, 234-43, Melucco Vaccaro, A. On the other hand Lepper and Frere chose to have the plates themselves poorly reproduced (Lepper and Frere 1988), rather than employing original negatives, as was done very successfully for the republication of Richmond’s paper on the Column (Richmond 1982). Later it was a favorite attraction for tourists: Goethe, the German poet, climbed the 185 internal steps in 1787 to “enjoy that incomparable view.” Plaster casts of the column were made starting in the 1500s, and they have preserved details that acid rain and pollution have worn away. Sa divine prévoyance assura, par l’adoption de Trajan, la prospérité de l’empire. Ils racontent, du point de vue des Romains, le déroulement des guerres que Trajan a menées en Dacie Similar in presentation to the EUR display is the cast set in the National Museum, Bucaresti, except that pedestal has been entirely assembled as one object (Florescu 1969; D’Amato 2001, 236). TRAIANI) is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate.It is located in Trajan's Forum, north of the Roman Forum. Unlike Trajan, Marcus Aurelius is missing from the scene of decapitation on his column, but we find the same number of barbarians decapitated as those on Trajan’s column, two. The latter is based on the photographic collection of the sculptor Peter Rockwell, and further information about his work and additional resources for studying the sculpting of Trajan’s Column are available with a mass of detailed images on the project website of, Unless otherwise credited, images presented in the Trajan’s Column Online Project were taken by Jon Coulston using a range of, There is never any substitute for studying an original monument or artwork, where possible. Standing on the scaffolding around the shaft gives a physical perspective which is much closer to that of the sculptors than may be achieved in a casts gallery. There is also noticeable deterioration by the time of the Napoléon III casts as compared with those of Louis XIV, but the rate of erosion since the early 1860s has been greatly accelerated. La colonne de Trajan était une nouveauté dans l’art antique. Modern research may be pursued through examination of antiquarian sketches, published engravings, casts made of the reliefs at different times, published photographic coverages and, of course, study of the original monument. However, the latter not only limit three-dimensional appreciation of the sculptures, but the moulding process necessarily produced a matrix which could be detached from the sculpted stone. La colonne de Marc Aurèle / 2, Iconographie / Depeyrot, Georges. The message seems intended for Romans, not the surviving Dacians, most of whom had been sold as slaves. You can’t believe a word of it.”, Coulston argues that no single mastermind was behind the carvings. Despite the fact that upper views may be taken from a balcony level, the assembled casts do not allow close examination of sculptural detail. 32 Elisabeth Bouley. As Florea conjures the smoke and screams, looting and slaughter, suicides and panic depicted on Trajan’s Column, there’s a rumble of thunder. Analyse (les Romains). Trajan’s Column, cast, citizen soldier’s sword missing much of blade (CXV.14). The casts have been cleaned and lighting improved in the gallery since the 1980s. 70, 76, 87). Trajan’s Column, Scenes XXXI and XXXVII (Sarmatian armoured cavalry in vertically adjacent positions). enregistrement des Fastes ostienses il a également rendu la date d'inauguration, le 12 mai. This had the particular virtue of clearly revealing survival of the patina on the surface of the stone, a vital element for appreciation of acid rain erosion and preservation of small details and tool marks (see also Melucco Vaccaro 1985). The historian Tacitus called them “a people which never can be trusted.” They were known for squeezing the equivalent of protection money out of the Roman Empire while sending warriors to raid its frontier towns. Envois des architectes français (1788-1924), Paris, Whitehouse, D. 1983: ‘The future of ancient Rome’, Antiquity 57, 38-44, Wilton-Ely, J. The sky is suddenly menacing, the air sticky and humid. Reinach 1909; Monti 1980, 69-83; Coarelli 1980, 118-27; Scheiper 1982, 158-81; Nardoni 1986, 137-74; Galinier 2007). C'est pas sorcier -Pont du Gard et Arènes de Nîmes : L'architecture gallo-romaine - Duration: 26:16. The few tourists speak in hushed voices. And what about the shocking depiction of women torturing shirtless, bound captives with flaming torches? “Les piliers du pont Trajan sur la rive gauche du Danube et la scène CI de Colonne Trajan.” Studii şi cervetari de istorie veche 17: 645-63. Topic: Colonne de Trajan | fr - 371 - 35081 In the first major battle Trajan defeated the Dacians (background) at Tapae. L’Architettura di Apollodoro nella Cultura Classica, Roma, Ficacci, L. 2000: Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Many visits were made in the company of the latter scholar whose knowledge of Roman architectural planning and design is unrivalled. The rest of Dacia was devastated too. Iconographie, monnaie et propagande sous Trajan. Concerns about air-raids during the Second World War led to the fascist regime erecting protective coverings for some monuments on Rome, and the publication of photographic studies made at the time (Romanelli 1942). War is war. Consequently, much to the frustration of tourists, but to the gratitude of scholars, the 1980s and early 1990s saw many of the ancient sculpted monuments covered in scaffolding with platforms and stairways (initially access up scaffolding poles using brackets), and enshrouded with signature green plastic netting (Colonne 1976; Whitehouse 1983; Nylander 1988). [The text is available online]. Trajan’s Column, sword grip carved in the round (XL.20). The layer does not actually preserve sculptural features, so much as draw the eye to where they are not compromised. The publication is invaluable for overall study, but the draughtspeople were not concerned primarily with sculptural detail, so recording of small Figure Type features was variable. Trajan colonized his newest province with Roman war veterans, a legacy reflected in the country’s modern name, Romania. Casts of the helical frieze of Trajan’s Column, National Museum, Bucaresti (Romania). The Complete Etchings, Köln, Florescu, F.B. Trajan’s war on the Dacians, a civilization in what is now Romania, was the defining event of his 19-year rule. 84.XO.251.1.17 Open Content images tend to be large in file-size. Quant à Trajan, empereur sans enfant, d'autres jeux de références le font apparaître comme le pater patriae de l'empire pacifié: le deuxième chapitre s'intéresse à l'iconographie de la colonne trajane où se multiplient les représentations de femmes et d'enfants barbares qui semblent s'adresser à l'empereur et aux soldats comme à des sauveurs et non comme à des ennemis. The question of whether or not Trajan’s Column was originally painted is a vexed one. ), 1985: La Colonna Traiana, Archeo Dossier, Novara, Monti, P.M. 1980: La Colonna Traiana, Rome, Nardoni, D. 1986: La Colonna Ulpia Traiana, Roma, Nuccio, M. de & Ungaro, L. The casts are vitally important for their preservation of detail and the interactive study of BOTH original sculptures and casts is indispensable. Kings François I in 1540 and Louis XIV in 1665-70 had partial cast sets made of the frieze and pedestal (Santi Bartoli was working for the latter monarch), and a complete cast of pedestal and shaft was created for Emperor Louis Napoléon III in 1861-62. The column emphasizes Rome’s vast empire. Description: xvi, 168 pages frontispiece (map) illustrations, 24 plates 25 cm: Responsibility: However, the opportunities to ‘get close and personal’ with the helical frieze of Trajan’s Column are very rare. Next to it is a low, circular stone altar carved with a sunburst pattern, the sacred center of the Dacian universe. Italians see them as captive Romans suffering at the hands of barbarian women. For centuries classicists have treated the carvings as a visual history of the wars, with Trajan as the hero and Decebalus, the Dacian king, as his worthy opponent. Early casts were also in circulation among artists for studio training and emulation. Scaffolding at the cornice level of the Arch of Constantine, Roma. However, the latter not only limit three-dimensional appreciation of the sculptures, but the moulding process necessarily produced a matrix which could be detached from the sculpted stone. “The campaigns were dreadful and violent,” says Roberto Meneghini, the Italian archaeologist in charge of excavating Trajan’s Forum. Dacia’s proud ruler spared himself the humiliation of surrender. In this marble statue he wears armor typically used in … 25 déc. Notes. Une autre colonne traverse le fleuve au même moment vers Drobeta. The Roman legions were known to be quite violent and fierce.”. C. de Mourges frères Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of Harvard University Language French The Cast Courts. For the past six years Gelu Florea, an archaeologist from Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca, has spent summers excavating the site. email: jcnc@st-andrews.ac.uk, Numerous artists and antiquarians sketched scenes from the reliefs of the Column from the later 15, Sketches and engravings, such as Santi Bartoli’s coverage of the Trajan’s Column frieze, or the 18, Despite their limitations and stylization, the Santi Bartoli engravings of the Column frieze continued to be reproduced, and to be redrawn in simplified form, even after the advent of photographic recording (e.g. They’re all fighting the Dacians, suggesting that anyone, no matter how wild their hair or crazy their fashion sense, could become a Roman. Agilent J&W HP-5ms is a (5%-phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane phase with very low bleed characteristics that is ideal for GC/MS. The Archaeology of the Eternal City, Oxford, 332-53, Pinatel, C. 1988: ‘Les moulages de la Colonne Trajane à Versailles, provenant de l’Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Paris et antérieurs à 1800’, in Francesi 1988, 274-80, Pogorzelski, R. 2012: Die Traianssäule in Rom. They are now rather damaged and not very finely detailed. Votre spécialiste en solutions d'analyse pour le labortoire It was a show of power—we have the means, we have the power, we are the bosses.”. Reinach 1886). Giangiacomo Martines. 2016 - Explorez le tableau « Apollodore de Damas » de Hubert Tdm, auquel 688 utilisateurs de Pinterest sont abonnés. In this marble statue he wears armor typically used in triumphal parades. Monumente de artă ale epocii lui Traian. La colonne Trajane Généralités La colonne Trajane (en latin : Columna traiani ) a été érigée à Rome, sur le Forum de Trajan, face au au temple de Trajan en 113 après J.-C. sous le règne de l'empereur Trajan … Travel in time with this stop-motion animation and see how Trajan’s Column was built—according to one theory. 1576: Historia utriusque belli Dacici a Traiano Caesare gesti, ex simulachris quae in columna eiusdem Romae visuntur collecta, Roma, Cichorius, C. 1896-1900: Die Reliefs der Traianssäule, Berlin, II 1896, III 1900, Coarelli, F. 1980: Guida archeologica di Roma, Roma, Coarelli, F. and Al Azm, A.N. Bar the occasional insurance difficulty, the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma liberally granted access to scholars and students (notably those attending British School at Rome Summer Schools). 2005: Bunte Götter. There’s not much fighting in its depiction of the two wars. Scaffolding enclosing the south-west half of the Arch of Septimius Severus, Roma. It was fortunate that the sculpture of the helix is of such low relief, nevertheless there are many examples of open hands and heavy undercutting which had to be filled in to facilitate the detachment. Gori 1752). Devant lui, des écuyers mènent par la bride son cheval et ceux de son état-major. Flecks of natural mica make the dirt paths sparkle in the sun. (ed. La colonne Trajane is a must-see and must-read for all those interested in Roman sculpture and Roman history.