From 1918 to 1923, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with contending paramilitaries) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. Gustav Stresemann was Reichskanzler for 100 days in 1923, and served as foreign minister from 1923 to 1929, a period of relative stability for the Weimar Republic, known in Germany as Goldene Zwanziger ("Golden Twenties"). Hitler addressed disparate interest groups, stressing the necessity for a definitive solution to the perpetual instability of the Weimar Republic. [57] The consensus today is that Brüning's policies exacerbated the German economic crisis and the population's growing frustration with democracy, contributing enormously to the increase in support for Hitler's NSDAP.[5]. Hindenburg, despite his misgivings about the Nazis' goals and about Hitler as a personality, reluctantly agreed to Papen's theory that, with Nazi popular support on the wane, Hitler could now be controlled as Chancellor. The ceremony helped convince the "old guard" Prussian military elite of Hitler's homage to their long tradition and, in turn, produced the relatively convincing view that Hitler's government had the support of Germany's traditional protector—the Army. On 11 November 1918, an armistice was signed at Compiègne by German representatives. Two hours later, a "Free Socialist Republic" was proclaimed, 2 km (1.2 mi) away, at the Berliner Stadtschloss. Histoire politique. Since Weimar politicians had been blamed for the Dolchstoß ("stab-in-the-back"), a widely believed theory that Germany's surrender in the First World War had been the unnecessary act of traitors, the popular legitimacy of the government was on shaky ground. In English the country w… The repression of an uprising of SPD supporters by the reactionary forces in the Freikorps on the instructions of the SPD ministers was to become a major source of conflict within the socialist movement and thus contributed to the weakening of the only group that could have withstood the Nazi movement. The right to bargain collectively was also established, while it was made obligatory "to elect workers’ committees on estates and establish conciliation committees". The state was officially the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), and was also referred to as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik). Even healthy companies, therefore, may appear over-indebted and facing bankruptcy. [19] A decree on 23 December 1918 established committees (composed of workers' representatives "in their relation to the employer") to safeguard the rights of workers. Friedrich Ebert initially declared the official German coat of arms to be a design by Emil Doepler (shown in the first infobox above) as of 12 November 1919, following a decision of the German government.[14]. German citizens felt the food shortages even deeper than during the war, because the reality of the nation contrasted so starkly with their expectations. Dès la nuit qui a suivi son accession à la chancellerie du Reich, le 9 novembre 1918, Friedrich Ebert conclut un accord secret avec l'armée pour mettre fin aux désordres. He explained that a deflation causes a decline of profits, asset prices and a still greater decline in the net worth of businesses. 1924, Hanovre. The 3,000 rebels were thwarted by the Bavarian authorities. The 1920s German inflation started when Germany had no goods to trade. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded it formal (de jure) recognition, and the two mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims. Of these losses, a large proportion consisted of provinces that were originally Polish, and Alsace-Lorraine, seized by Germany in 1870, where Germans constituted only part or a minority of local populations despite nationalist outrage at the fragmentation of Germany. Germany recognised the western borders that had been established through the Versaille Treaty, but its eastern borders remained subject to possible revisions. In the next five years, the central government, assured of the support of the Reichswehr, dealt severely with the occasional outbreaks of violence in Germany's large cities. [46] Health insurance coverage was extended to other categories of the population during the existence of the Weimar Republic, including seamen, people employed in the educational and social welfare sectors, and all primary dependents. Et accédez à des documents multimédia, exclusifs et surprenants ! The revolution spread throughout Germany, and participants seized military and civil powers in individual cities. During the worst phase of hyperinflation in 1923, the clubs and bars were full of speculators who spent their daily profits so they would not lose the value the following day. By early February, a mere week after Hitler's assumption of the chancellorship, the government had begun to clamp down on the opposition. The power takeover was achieved everywhere without loss of life. “Republique is some of the most entertaining and clever dystopian fiction ever realized in game form.” 8.5/10 – Polygon “Special, new, and necessary.” 8.5/10 – IGN “If you’ve never played Republique before, this is the best way to experience it.” 8/10 – Hardcore Gamer Meetings of the left-wing parties were banned and even some of the moderate parties found their members threatened and assaulted. In January, the Spartacus League and others in the streets of Berlin made more armed attempts to establish communism, known as the Spartacist uprising. The burdens of the First World War lightened little in the immediate years following, and with the onset of the Treaty of Versailles, coupled by mass inflation, Germany still remained in a crisis. Most Germans thought the Treaty of Versailles was a punishing and degrading document because it forced them to surrender resource-rich areas and pay massive amounts of compensation. [39] That same year, health insurance was extended to wives and daughters without their own income, people only partially capable of gainful employment, people employed in private cooperatives, and people employed in public cooperatives. [37] Art and a new type of architecture taught at "Bauhaus" schools reflected the new ideas of the time, with artists such as George Grosz being fined for defaming the military and for blasphemy. On 29 January, Hitler and Papen thwarted a last-minute threat of an officially sanctioned Reichswehr takeover, and on 30 January 1933 Hindenburg accepted the new Papen-Nationalist-Hitler coalition, with the Nazis holding only three of eleven Cabinet seats: Hitler as Chancellor, Wilhelm Frick as Minister of the Interior and Hermann Göring as Minister Without Portfolio. Dans le même temps se réunit à Weimar une Assemblée nationale, majoritairement constitu… With the ascendance of the SS, the Reichswehr took a softer line about the Nazis, as the SS presented itself as elitist, respectable, orderly, and busy reforming and dominating the police rather than the army. 20 oct. 2018 - Explorez le tableau « Weimar republic » de Myrtle BeauRegard, auquel 204 utilisateurs de Pinterest sont abonnés. From 1930 onwards, President Paul von Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher. These signs had remained symbols of the Paulskirche movement. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 (when payments were suspended indefinitely) was 20 billion German gold marks, worth about US$5 billion or £1 billion British pounds. At the beginning of 1920, 50 marks was equivalent to one US dollar. Instead, the struggles induced by the First World War persisted for the decade following. The reparations bill was fixed in 1921 on the basis of a German capacity to pay, not on the basis of Allied claims. However, he also drew right-wing extremist hatred as a Jew (see also Weimar antisemitism). While in jail, Hitler dictated Mein Kampf, which laid out his ideas and future policies. Only the SPD had voted against the Act. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charge and colours as those of the eagle of the Reich's coat of arms are to be used, but the tops of the feathers are directed outside. The National Assembly elections took place on 19 January 1919. The severe food shortages improved little to none up until 1923. In a legally questionable act, Imperial Chancellor (Reichskanzler) Prince Max of Baden transferred his powers to Friedrich Ebert, who, shattered by the monarchy's fall, reluctantly accepted. Many ships were scuttled and submarines and dreadnoughts were prohibited. Every other member of the Reichstag, whether from the largest or the smallest party, voted in favour of the Act. [10] To the right of the spectrum, the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and were appalled to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. Unemployment thereafter grew dramatically, at 4 million in 1930,[51] and in September 1930 a political earthquake shook the republic to its foundations. Overall trade increased and unemployment fell. It effectively ended military operations between the Allies and Germany. In English the country was usually simply called "Germany," and the term "Weimar Republic" did not become common until the 1930s. He now blamed Germany's problems on the Communists, even threatening their lives on 3 March. By the end of March, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had used the perceived state of emergency to grant Hitler as Chancellor broad power to act outside parliamentary control, which he used to thwart constitutional governance and civil liberties. As the Weimar Republic was very fragile in all its existence, the depression was devastating, and played a major role in the Nazi takeover. The 'Ebert–Groener pact' stipulated that the government would not attempt to reform the army so long as the army swore to protect the state. [24] In addition, undemocratic public institutions were abolished, involving, as noted by one writer, the disappearance "of the Prussian Upper House, the former Prussian Lower House that had been elected in accordance with the three-class suffrage, and the municipal councils that were also elected on the class vote".[25]. In 1920, the German Workers' Party had become the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), or Nazi party, and would become a driving force in the collapse of Weimar. [34], Since striking workers were paid benefits by the state, much additional currency was printed, fuelling a period of hyperinflation. The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (listen)), is a historical designation for the German federal state that existed from 1918 to 1933. For the German city, see, States of the Weimar Republic in the 1920s (with, The official coat of arms of Germany from 1928 to 1933, designed by Tobias Schwab, Brüning's policy of deflation (1930–1932). Many blamed the Weimar Republic. Those articles of the Weimar constitution (which dealt with the state's relationship to various Christian churches) remain part of the German Basic Law. Chicago Nadeau, Martin "Dada dans la République de Weimar". ... Si ses chances de réussite étaient faibles, la République de Weimar n'était pas non plus irrémédiablement vouée à l'échec, selon l'auteur. The 6 November 1932 elections yielded 33% for the Nazis,[60] two million voters fewer than in the previous election. Germany was forced under Article 235 to pay 20 billion gold marks, about 4.5 billion dollars by 1921. After the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the remaining states continued as republics. [16][17][14] The Reichswehr adopted the new Reichswappen in 1927. Retreat and defeat were at hand, and the Army told the Kaiser to abdicate for it could no longer support him. The party owed its huge increase to growing support from middle-class people, whose traditional parties were swallowed up by the Nazi Party. Kaas, the party's chairman since 1928, had strong connections to the Vatican Secretary of State, later Pope Pius XII. Inter no. Those years are sometimes called the Golden Twenties. Hitler is recorded at the Nuremberg Trials as being sure of eventual Centre Party Germany capitulation and thus rejecting of the DNVP's suggestions to "balance" the majority through further arrests, this time of Social Democrats. Privates were mainly recruited from the countryside, as it was believed that young men from cities were prone to socialist behaviour, which would fray the loyalty of the privates to their conservative officers. workers). By late 1931, the conservative movement was dead and Hindenburg and the Reichswehr had begun to contemplate dropping Brüning in favour of accommodating Hugenberg and Hitler. Hitler used the ensuing state of emergency to obtain the presidential assent of Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire Decree the following day. At the time, the Socialist movement which represented mostly labourers was split among two major left-wing parties: the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), which called for immediate peace negotiations and favoured a soviet-style command economy, and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) also known as "Majority" Social Democratic Party of Germany (MSPD), which supported the war effort and favoured a parliamentary system. The Allies permitted only low import levels of goods that most Germans could not afford. Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor on the morning of 30 January 1933 in what some observers later described as a brief and indifferent ceremony. Many German civilians expected life to return to prewar normalcy following the removal of the naval blockade in June 1919. Artists in Berlin were influenced by other contemporary progressive cultural movements, such as the Impressionist and Expressionist painters in Paris, as well as the Cubists. Likewise, American progressive architects were admired. On 30 December, the split deepened when the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) was formed out of a number of radical left-wing groups, including the left wing of the USPD and the Spartacus League group. Although the new government was confirmed by the Berlin worker and soldier council, it was opposed by the Spartacus League. Examples of the new architecture include the Bauhaus Building by Gropius, Grosses Schauspielhaus, and the Einstein Tower. La République de l'entre-deux-guerres, victorieuse et fragilisée (1919-1934) - Duration: 6:10. Ce sera la fin de la République de Weimar. The sailors and soldiers, inexperienced in matters of revolutionary combat, welcomed him as an experienced politician and allowed him to negotiate a settlement, thus defusing the initial anger of the revolutionaries in uniform. The cabinet (under a previous interpretation of Article 48) ruled without a sitting Reichstag, which could vote only for its own dissolution. La République de Weimar a plus de contradicteurs que de … In 1922, Germany signed the Treaty of Rapallo with the Soviet Union, which allowed Germany to train military personnel in exchange for giving Russia military technology. "[31] Adolf Hitler repeatedly blamed the republic and its democracy for accepting the oppressive terms of this treaty. The Republic's first Reichspräsident ("Reich President"), Friedrich Ebert of the SPD, signed the new German constitution into law on 11 August 1919. The ceremonial opening of the Reichstag on 21 March was held at the Garrison Church in Potsdam, a shrine of Prussianism, in the presence of many Junker landowners and representatives of the imperial military caste. From November 1918 to January 1919, Germany was governed by the "Council of the People's Deputies", under the leadership of Ebert and Haase. [40] Various improvements were also made in unemployment benefits, although in June 1920 the maximum amount of unemployment benefit that a family of four could receive in Berlin, 90 marks, was well below the minimum cost of subsistence of 304 marks. L’amont c’est la défaite de l’Allemagne marquée par deux moments : abdication du « kaiser » Guillaume II le 9 Novembre (= proclamation de la République) et le 11 Novembre date officielle de la capitulation Allemande. La fin de la République de Weimar. While the official reparations were considerable, Germany ended up paying only a fraction of them. Régime de Weimar (Allemagne, 1919-1933) Allemagne. In a cynical and politically adroit move, Hitler bowed in apparently respectful humility before President and Field Marshal Hindenburg. This was intended to forestall any action against the government by the Communists. La république de Weimar et l’espace. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. On 28 January, Papen described Hitler to Paul von Hindenburg as only a minority part of an alternative, Papen-arranged government. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak, tongue and claws in red colour. Led by Ebert for the MSPD and Hugo Haase for the USPD it sought to act as a provisional cabinet of ministers. This policy did not prove successful either. However, Russia had pulled out of the First World War against the Germans as a result of the 1917 Russian Revolution, and was excluded from the League of Nations. This Act would, and did, lead Hitler and the NSDAP toward his goal of unfettered dictatorial powers.[61]. The growing dependence on American finance was to prove fleeting, and Germany was one of the worst hit nations in the Great Depression. The consequent general election on 14 September resulted in an enormous political shift within the Reichstag: 18.3% of the vote went to the NSDAP, five times the percentage won in 1928. Thus, the USPD left the "Council of the People's Deputies" after only seven weeks. Weimar wanted to express its origins in that political movement between 1849 and 1858; while anti-republicans opposed this flag. The democratic parties obtained a solid 80% of the vote. The hitherto Presidential Dictatorship hereby was to give itself a new legal form. Stinnes' empire collapsed when the government-sponsored inflation was stopped in November 1923. Ludendorff and Hitler declared that the Weimar government was deposed and that they were planning to take control of Munich the following day. Meanwhile, the only remaining question for the Nazis was whether the Catholic Centre Party would support the Enabling Act in the Reichstag, thereby providing the ⅔ majority required to ratify a law that amended the constitution. Kaas is considered to have had a hand therefore in the drafting of the speech. The USPD leaders were outraged by what they believed was treachery by the MSPD, which, in their view, had joined with the anti-communist military to suppress the revolution. La République de Weimar, proclamée novembre 9, 1918, était défaite et révolution sociale au beau milieu de militaires soutenues. [citation needed]. Between 1919 and 1933, there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance and is the reason why the old name Deutsches Reich remained, although hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period. At the end of 1933, Mecklenburg-Strelitz was merged with Mecklenburg-Schwerin to form a united Mecklenburg. No aircraft of any kind was allowed. The punitive reparations caused consternation and resentment, but the actual economic damage resulting from the Treaty of Versailles is difficult to determine. In addition, a supplementary directive of December 1918 specified that female (and child) workers were entitled to a fifteen-minute break if they worked between four and six hours, thirty minutes for workdays lasting six to eight hours, and one hour for longer days. [5] Among other measures, he completely halted all public grants to the obligatory unemployment insurance introduced in 1927, resulting in workers making higher contributions and fewer benefits for the unemployed. Dada dans la République de Weimar. The economic stagnation led to increased demands on Germany to repay the debts owed to the United States. In August 1921, Finance Minister Matthias Erzberger and Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau[a] were murdered by members of the Organization Consul. [citation needed], Princeton historian Harold James argues that there was a clear link between economic decline and people turning to extremist politics.[69]. In 1926, about 2 million Germans were unemployed, which rose to around 6 million in 1932. [citation needed]. Before the March 1933 elections, Hitler had persuaded Hindenburg to promulgate the Reichstag Fire Decree using Article 48, which empowered the government to restrict "the rights of habeas corpus [...] freedom of the press, the freedom to organise and assemble, the privacy of postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications" and legalised search warrants and confiscation "beyond legal limits otherwise prescribed". The die-hard nationalists then blamed the civilians for betraying the army and the surrender. December 2008; Geographie et Cultures; DOI: 10.4000/gc.1614. By late summer 1918 the German reserves were exhausted while fresh American troops arrived in France at the rate of 10,000 a day. There were two notable de jure changes, however. The government printed money to deal with the crisis; this meant payments within Germany were made with worthless paper money, and helped formerly great industrialists to pay back their own loans. Only the tiny German Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont upheld the tradition and continued to use the German colours called Schwarz-Rot-Gold in German, (English: Black-Red-Gold) that had originated within a German-held state as early as 1778. It is widely believed that the 1919 constitution had several weaknesses, making the eventual establishment of a dictatorship likely, but it is unknown whether a different constitution could have prevented the rise of the Nazi party. Il a publié chez Flammarion plusieurs manuels d'Histoire, régulièrement réédités : Chronologie universelle, Les grandes dates de l'Histoire de France... Passionné d'Histoire depuis la petite enfance, notre directeur de la rédaction a suivi une maîtrise d'Histoire à l'université de Toulouse en parallèle avec des études d'ingénieur à l'École centrale de Lyon (1973-1976). The main advantage of this limitation, however, was that the Reichswehr could afford to pick the best recruits for service. The state was officially the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), and was also referred to as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik). In this brief Presidential Dictatorship intermission, Schleicher assumed the role of "Socialist General" and entered into relations with the Christian Trade Unions, the relatively left of the Nazi party, and even with the Social Democrats. The left of the Nazi party strove desperately against any drift into the train of such capitalist and feudal reactionaries. Various right-wing sources opposed any democratic system, preferring an authoritarian, autocratic state like the 1871 Empire. Hans Ulrich Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 4, 1. Former Chancellor Heinrich Brüning proclaimed that his Centre Party would resist any constitutional change and appealed to the President for an investigation of the Reichstag fire. On 22 January, Hitler's efforts to persuade Oskar von Hindenburg, the President's son and confidant, included threats to bring criminal charges over estate taxation irregularities at the President's Neudeck estate; although 5,000 acres (20 km2) extra were soon allotted to Hindenburg's property. The German peace delegation in France signed the Treaty of Versailles, accepting mass reductions of the German military, the prospect of substantial war reparations payments to the victorious allies, and the controversial "War Guilt Clause". [clarification needed] As the Young Plan did not allow a devaluation of the Reichsmark, Brüning triggered a deflationary internal devaluation by forcing the economy to reduce prices, rents, salaries and wages by 20%. R/ Une gerbe accostée de la (date) ; au-dessous It introduced the eight-hour workday, domestic labour reform, works councils, agricultural labour reform, right of civil-service associations, local municipality social welfare relief (split between Reich and States) and national health insurance, reinstatement of demobilised workers, protection from arbitrary dismissal with appeal as a right, regulated wage agreement, and universal suffrage from 20 years of age in all types of elections—local and national. The regular army and the Freikorps ended the uprising on their own authority. A timeline of the Weimar Republic gives an overview from its foundation in 1918 to its end in 1933, focusing on its early years. The rebels were campaigning for an extension of the plans to nationalise major industries and supported the national government, but the SPD leaders did not want to lend support to the growing USPD, who favoured the establishment of a socialist regime. [citation needed], Papen was closely associated with the industrialist and land-owning classes and pursued an extremely conservative policy along Hindenburg's lines. In part, the economic losses can also be attributed to the Allied blockade of Germany until the Treaty of Versailles. Ludendorf and Hindenburg soon proclaimed that it was the defeatism of the civilian population that had made defeat inevitable. The Weimar Constitution created a republic under a parliamentary republic system with the Reichstag elected by proportional representation. Since the republicans were not yet ready to take action, the Communists did not want to support the republic and the conservatives had shot their political bolt, Hitler and Hugenberg were certain to achieve power. Later that day, the first cabinet meeting was attended by only two political parties, representing a minority in the Reichstag: The Nazis and the German National People's Party (DNVP), led by Alfred Hugenberg, with 196 and 52 seats respectively. This also led to pay raises for workers and for businessmen who wanted to profit from it. Offizieller Account der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar auf Instagramm Offizieller Account der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar auf Vimeo The Bauhaus-Universität Weimar uses Matomo for web analytics. 134 (2020) : 46–53. Benefits for the sick, invalid and pensioners were also reduced sharply. At the Reichstag elections, which took place on 5 March 1933, the NSDAP obtained 17 million votes. Millions were disenchanted with what they considered capitalism and hoping for a new era. [11] By the mid-1920s, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was a painful reminder of a government structure that had been imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar and the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation.[11]. The rationale behind exterminating the population of swine was to decrease the use of potatoes and turnips for animal consumption, transitioning all foods toward human consumption. They wanted a renewed Germany and a new organisation of German society. The Nazis in power brought almost all major organisations into line under Nazi control or direction, which was termed Gleichschaltung. [42] Under a governmental decree of 3 February 1919, the German government met the demand of the veterans' associations that all aid for the disabled and their dependents be taken over by the central government[43] (thus assuming responsibility for this assistance) and extended into peacetime the nationwide network of state and district welfare bureaus that had been set up during the war to coordinate social services for war widows and orphans. This effectively rendered parliament as a means of enforcing constitutional checks and balances powerless. The national government fled to Stuttgart and called for a general strike against the putsch. Hitler named himself as chairman of the party in July 1921. Entités précédentes : * Empire allemand Entités suivantes : * Deuxième République de Pologne (1919) * Drapeau du Danemark Danemark (Jutland-du-Sud) (1920) * Drapeau de l'Allemagne nazie Reich allemand La république de Weimar (en allemand : Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪ.ma.ʁɐ ʁe.pu.ˈbliːk] ) est le nom donné par les historiens au régime politique en place en Allemagne de 1918 à 1933. La République de Weimar est le nom donné par les historiens à la république fédérale située en Allemagne existant de 1918 à 1933.. Fondation [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. The Communist, Social Democrat and Catholic Centre votes stood firm. Schleicher planned for a sort of labour government under his Generalship. [36] Germany signed arbitration conventions with France and Belgium and arbitration treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, undertaking to refer any future disputes to an arbitration tribunal or to the Permanent Court of International Justice. [citation needed]. During the Kapp Putsch for example, the army refused to fire upon the rebels. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm.