Date of birth/death: ... le chancelier du Reich Constantin Fehrenbach et les membres de gouvernement sont en train de faire acclamer la république. The ceremonial opening of the Reichstag on 21 March was held at the Garrison Church in Potsdam, a shrine of Prussianism, in the presence of many Junker landowners and representatives of the imperial military caste. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charge and colours as those of the eagle of the Reich's coat of arms are to be used, but the tops of the feathers are directed outside. On 9 November 1918, the "German Republic" was proclaimed by MSPD member Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building in Berlin, to the fury of Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the MSPD, who thought that the question of monarchy or republic should be answered by a national assembly. The hitherto Presidential Dictatorship hereby was to give itself a new legal form. Led by Ebert for the MSPD and Hugo Haase for the USPD it sought to act as a provisional cabinet of ministers. The uprising was brutally attacked by Freikorps, which consisted mainly of ex-soldiers dismissed from the army and who were well-paid to put down forces of the Far Left. La république de Weimar (Weimarer Republik) est le nom donné par les historiens au régime politique en place en Allemagne de 1918 à 1933. In 1929, the onset of the depression in the United States of America produced a severe economic shock in Germany and was further made worse by the bankruptcy of the Austrian Creditanstalt bank. At the last internal Centre meeting prior to the debate on the Enabling Act, Kaas expressed no preference or suggestion on the vote, but as a way of mollifying opposition by Centre members to the granting of further powers to Hitler, Kaas somehow arranged for a letter of constitutional guarantee from Hitler himself prior to his voting with the centre en bloc in favour of the Enabling Act. At the end of 1933, Mecklenburg-Strelitz was merged with Mecklenburg-Schwerin to form a united Mecklenburg. Kaas is considered to have had a hand therefore in the drafting of the speech. Immediately afterward, Brüning submitted the president's decree that the Reichstag be dissolved. On the one hand, this agreement symbolised the acceptance of the new government by the military, assuaging concern among the middle classes; on the other hand, it was thought contrary to working-class interests by left wing social democrats and communists, and was also opposed by the far right who believed democracy would make Germany weaker. Rampant hyperinflation, massive unemployment, and a large drop in living standards were primary factors. Hans Ulrich Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 4, 1. [10] Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany. The die-hard nationalists then blamed the civilians for betraying the army and the surrender. Weimar wanted to express its origins in that political movement between 1849 and 1858; while anti-republicans opposed this flag. Papen lifted the ban on the NSDAP's SA paramilitary, imposed after the street riots, in an unsuccessful attempt to secure the backing of Hitler. Walther Rathenau, the Jewish Foreign Minister who signed the treaty, was assassinated two months later by two ultra-nationalist army officers. However, the 1949 West German constitution (the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany) is generally viewed as a strong response to these flaws. Thus, Germany seized the chance to make an ally. From 1918 to 1923, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with contending paramilitaries) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. Although Hindenburg disliked Hugenberg and despised Hitler, he was no less a supporter of the sort of anti-democratic counter-revolution that the DNVP and NSDAP represented. During the worst phase of hyperinflation in 1923, the clubs and bars were full of speculators who spent their daily profits so they would not lose the value the following day. German citizens felt the food shortages even deeper than during the war, because the reality of the nation contrasted so starkly with their expectations. The first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar (Republic of Weimar) came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929. Outmaneuvered by Papen and Hitler on plans for the new cabinet, and having lost Hindenburg's confidence, Schleicher asked for new elections. Thus, Ebert was able to institute elections for a provisional National Assembly that would be given the task of writing a democratic constitution for parliamentary government, marginalising the movement that called for a socialist republic. The major weakness in constitutional terms was the inherent instability of the coalitions, which often fell prior to elections. Des milliers de professeurs, d’industriels, d’hommes politiques détestaient les nazis mais n’aimaient pas la République. On 8 November 1923, the Kampfbund, in a pact with Erich Ludendorff, took over a meeting by Bavarian prime minister Gustav von Kahr at a beer hall in Munich. The consequent general election on 14 September resulted in an enormous political shift within the Reichstag: 18.3% of the vote went to the NSDAP, five times the percentage won in 1928. On 18 July, as a result of opposition from the SPD, KPD, DNVP and the small contingent of NSDAP members, the Reichstag again rejected the bill by a slim margin. En savoir plus, Herodote.net se développe avec le seul soutien de ses abonnés...En savoir plus, Dommage de caricaturer le mouvement spartakiste, Rosa Luxemburg et Karl Liebknetch et les conseils ouvriers. The passage of the Enabling Act of 1933 is widely considered to mark the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Nazi era. [citation needed], Papen was closely associated with the industrialist and land-owning classes and pursued an extremely conservative policy along Hindenburg's lines. Most Germans thought the Treaty of Versailles was a punishing and degrading document because it forced them to surrender resource-rich areas and pay massive amounts of compensation. This policy did not prove successful either. Other rebellions were put down in March 1921 in Saxony and Hamburg. Brüning's economic policy from 1930 to 1932 has been the subject of much debate. Such support would publicly signal a return to conservatism to curb the problems affecting the Weimar Republic, and that stability might be at hand. Hitler also pledged to protect the Catholic confessional schools and to respect the concordats signed between the Holy See and Bavaria (1924), Prussia (1929) and Baden (1931). A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. English: After the swearing-in of the first president of Reich in Weimar: ... Weimar: Date: 21 August 1919 Sporadic fighting continued to flare up around the country. On 29 January, Hitler and Papen thwarted a last-minute threat of an officially sanctioned Reichswehr takeover, and on 30 January 1933 Hindenburg accepted the new Papen-Nationalist-Hitler coalition, with the Nazis holding only three of eleven Cabinet seats: Hitler as Chancellor, Wilhelm Frick as Minister of the Interior and Hermann Göring as Minister Without Portfolio. Prominent features of this period were a growing economy and a consequent decrease in civil unrest. Friedrich Ebert initially declared the official German coat of arms to be a design by Emil Doepler (shown in the first infobox above) as of 12 November 1919, following a decision of the German government.[14]. A timeline of the Weimar Republic gives an overview from its foundation in 1918 to its end in 1933, focusing on its early years. The reasons for the Weimar Republic's collapse are the subject of continuing debate. [44], The Imperial Youth Welfare Act of 1922 obliged all municipalities and states to set up youth offices in charge of child protection, and also codified a right to education for all children,[45] while laws were passed to regulate rents and increase protection for tenants in 1922 and 1923. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded it formal (de jure) recognition, and the two mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims. Cette République de Weimar a concentré durant ses 14 années d’existence un nombre important d’événements, dont certains auraient pu laisser prévoir une solution progressiste, grâce à l’action révolutionnaire, alors que d’autres ont participé à précipiter le … Artists in Berlin were influenced by other contemporary progressive cultural movements, such as the Impressionist and Expressionist painters in Paris, as well as the Cubists. [40] A series of progressive tax reforms were introduced under the auspices of Matthias Erzberger, including increases in taxes on capital[41] and an increase in the highest income tax rate from 4% to 60%. Meanwhile, the only remaining question for the Nazis was whether the Catholic Centre Party would support the Enabling Act in the Reichstag, thereby providing the ⅔ majority required to ratify a law that amended the constitution. Ludendorf and Hindenburg soon proclaimed that it was the defeatism of the civilian population that had made defeat inevitable. La presse s’empare de l’affaire et un suspect, Fritz Haarmann,… Germany was particularly affected because it depended heavily on American loans. Chaque semaine, un contrepoint historique de l'actualité, anniversaires, récits, devinettes : Gratuit et vous pouvez vous désabonner à tout moment. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 (when payments were suspended indefinitely) was 20 billion German gold marks, worth about US$5 billion or £1 billion British pounds. In this brief Presidential Dictatorship intermission, Schleicher assumed the role of "Socialist General" and entered into relations with the Christian Trade Unions, the relatively left of the Nazi party, and even with the Social Democrats. The greater blow to Germans however was that they were forced to give up the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. La République de Weimar, proclamée novembre 9, 1918, était défaite et révolution sociale au beau milieu de militaires soutenues. In response, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr region, Germany's most productive industrial region at the time, taking control of most mining and manufacturing companies in January 1923. The first challenge to the Weimar Republic came when a group of communists and anarchists took over the Bavarian government in Munich and declared the creation of the Bavarian Soviet Republic. André Larané a fondé Herodote.net en 2004 après une première carrière dans le journalisme scientifique. The republicans took up the idea of the German Coat of Arms established by the Paulskirche movement, using the same charge animal, an eagle, in the same colours (black, red and gold), but modernising its form, including a reduction of the heads from two to one. La République parlementaire de Weimar fut, jusqu'en 1929, un régime démocratique efficace. ... Weimar Germany 1919-29 revision for GCSE and IGCSE History - Duration: 11:00. Désireux de créer le système le plus démocratique qui soit, les constituants introduisent aussi le référendum d'initiative populaire mais aussi un mode de scrutin à la proportionnelle intégrale. From November 1918 to January 1919, Germany was governed by the "Council of the People's Deputies", under the leadership of Ebert and Haase. [67] Germany had limited democratic traditions, and Weimar democracy was widely seen as chaotic. [citation needed]. Hitler and the Nazis exploited the German state's broadcasting and aviation facilities in a massive attempt to sway the electorate, but this election yielded a scant majority of 16 seats for the coalition. Régime de Weimar (Allemagne, 1919-1933) Allemagne. Since the republicans were not yet ready to take action, the Communists did not want to support the republic and the conservatives had shot their political bolt, Hitler and Hugenberg were certain to achieve power. On 28 January, Papen described Hitler to Paul von Hindenburg as only a minority part of an alternative, Papen-arranged government. La république de Weimar et l’espace. Benefits for the sick, invalid and pensioners were also reduced sharply. Many German civilians expected life to return to prewar normalcy following the removal of the naval blockade in June 1919. Although the new government was confirmed by the Berlin worker and soldier council, it was opposed by the Spartacus League. Ludendorff and Hitler declared that the Weimar government was deposed and that they were planning to take control of Munich the following day. [5] After a bill to reform the Reich's finances was opposed by the Reichstag, it was made an emergency decree by Hindenburg. Hitler now decided to focus on legal methods of gaining power. That was made apparent when political parties on both right and left wanting to disband the Republic altogether made any democratic majority in Parliament impossible. [11] Zentrum, the Catholic Centre Party, favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat (German People's State), while on the moderate left Chancellor Friedrich Ebert's Social Democratic Party of Germany preferred Deutsche Republik (German Republic). It caused many Germans to identify the Republic with cuts in social spending and extremely liberal economics. After meeting with Centre leader Monsignor Ludwig Kaas and other Centre Trade Union leaders daily and denying them a substantial participation in the government, negotiation succeeded in respect of guarantees towards Catholic civil-servants and education issues. [62] Kaas is also reported as voicing the Holy See's desire for Hitler as bulwark against atheistic Russian nihilism previously as early as May 1932. Il a publié chez Flammarion plusieurs manuels d'Histoire, régulièrement réédités : Chronologie universelle, Les grandes dates de l'Histoire de France... Passionné d'Histoire depuis la petite enfance, notre directeur de la rédaction a suivi une maîtrise d'Histoire à l'université de Toulouse en parallèle avec des études d'ingénieur à l'École centrale de Lyon (1973-1976). In English the country was usually simply called "Germany," and the term "Weimar Republic" did not become common until the 1930s. The Council issued a large number of decrees that radically shifted German policies. On 11 November 1918, an armistice was signed at Compiègne by German representatives. Chicago Nadeau, Martin "Dada dans la République de Weimar". Despite the change in the form of government, the official name of the state remained the same as it had been during the German Empire. By 7 November, the revolution had reached Munich, resulting in King Ludwig III of Bavaria fleeing. In a legally questionable act, Imperial Chancellor (Reichskanzler) Prince Max of Baden transferred his powers to Friedrich Ebert, who, shattered by the monarchy's fall, reluctantly accepted. This was against the Treaty of Versailles, which limited Germany to 100,000 soldiers and no conscription, naval forces of 15,000 men, twelve destroyers, six battleships, and six cruisers, no submarines or aircraft. Hitler is recorded at the Nuremberg Trials as being sure of eventual Centre Party Germany capitulation and thus rejecting of the DNVP's suggestions to "balance" the majority through further arrests, this time of Social Democrats. It introduced the eight-hour workday, domestic labour reform, works councils, agricultural labour reform, right of civil-service associations, local municipality social welfare relief (split between Reich and States) and national health insurance, reinstatement of demobilised workers, protection from arbitrary dismissal with appeal as a right, regulated wage agreement, and universal suffrage from 20 years of age in all types of elections—local and national. High unemployment led to the collapse of the coalition government and from March 1930 various chancellors ruled through emergency powers granted by the President. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. [10] To the right of the spectrum, the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and were appalled to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The growing post-war economic crisis was a result of lost pre-war industrial exports, the loss of supplies in raw materials and foodstuffs due to the continental blockade, the loss of the colonies, and worsening debt balances, exacerbated by an exorbitant issue of promissory notes raising money to pay for the war. But the Reichswehr officers were not prepared for this, the working class had a natural distrust of their future allies, and the great capitalists and landowners also did not like the plans. République de Weimar. Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for high treason, a minimum sentence for the charge. At the time, the Socialist movement which represented mostly labourers was split among two major left-wing parties: the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), which called for immediate peace negotiations and favoured a soviet-style command economy, and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) also known as "Majority" Social Democratic Party of Germany (MSPD), which supported the war effort and favoured a parliamentary system. Bloody street fights culminated in the beating and shooting deaths of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht after their arrests on 15 January. The growing dependence on American finance was to prove fleeting, and Germany was one of the worst hit nations in the Great Depression. [39] That same year, health insurance was extended to wives and daughters without their own income, people only partially capable of gainful employment, people employed in private cooperatives, and people employed in public cooperatives. [64], In the debate prior to the vote on the Enabling Act, Hitler orchestrated the full political menace of his paramilitary forces like the storm division in the streets to intimidate reluctant Reichstag deputies into approving the Enabling Act. Hitler named himself as chairman of the party in July 1921. His primary goal was to remove Germany's reparation payments by convincing the Allies that they could no longer be paid. [citation needed]. Entités précédentes : * Empire allemand Entités suivantes : * Deuxième République de Pologne (1919) * Drapeau du Danemark Danemark (Jutland-du-Sud) (1920) * Drapeau de l'Allemagne nazie Reich allemand La république de Weimar (en allemand : Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪ.ma.ʁɐ ʁe.pu.ˈbliːk] ) est le nom donné par les historiens au régime politique en place en Allemagne de 1918 à 1933. However, the reparations damaged Germany's economy by discouraging market loans, which forced the Weimar government to finance its deficit by printing more currency, causing rampant hyperinflation. Une lettre pour tous les passionnés d'Histoire, Publié ou mis à jour le : 2019-06-11 09:10:03. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy (Crown, Collar, Breast shield with the Prussian Arms). Allemagne, République de Weimar, reichspfennig, 1927-G. A/ DEUTSCHES REICH/ REICHSPFENNIG. [57] The consensus today is that Brüning's policies exacerbated the German economic crisis and the population's growing frustration with democracy, contributing enormously to the increase in support for Hitler's NSDAP.[5]. Overall trade increased and unemployment fell. Leur vision très critique du bolchevisme était prémonitoire et leur assassinat a brisé une ... Lire la suite. According to historian Richard J. Evans:[12]. As Brüning had no majority support in the Reichstag, he became, through the use of the emergency powers granted to the Reichspräsident (Article 48) by the constitution, the first Weimar chancellor to operate independently of parliament. A l'époque de la République de Weimar, le cinéma allemand était mondialement renommé. No single reason can explain the failure of the Weimar Republic. Former Chancellor Heinrich Brüning proclaimed that his Centre Party would resist any constitutional change and appealed to the President for an investigation of the Reichstag fire. He promised to respect their rights and declared that his government's "ambition is a peaceful accord between Church and State" and that he hoped "to improve [their] friendly relations with the Holy See". [26] With the affirmation of Ebert, those responsible were not tried before a court martial, leading to lenient sentences, which made Ebert unpopular among radical leftists. This encouraged an escalation in the number of public demonstrations and instances of paramilitary violence organised by the NSDAP. In January, the Spartacus League and others in the streets of Berlin made more armed attempts to establish communism, known as the Spartacist uprising. In 1926, Germany was admitted to the League of Nations as a permanent member, improving her international standing and giving the right to vote on League matters. in June 1922, who had been defamed as compliant "Erfüllungspolitiker" [de][b] with regard to the Treaty of Versailles. Allemagne -- 1918-1933 (République de Weimar) Allemagne -- Histoire -- 1918-1933. Historian Sally Marks says the 112 billion marks in "C bonds" were entirely chimerical—a device to fool the public into thinking Germany would pay much more. From 1924 to 1929, the Republic enjoyed relative stability and prosperity. The Grand Coalition headed by Muller inspired some faith in the government, but that didn't last. To further undermine the Republic's credibility, some right-wingers (especially certain members of the former officer corps) also blamed an alleged conspiracy of Socialists and Jews for Germany's defeat in the First World War.